Bibliography: Surveillance Education (page 78 of 81)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Whistleblower Defense website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kary L. Moss, Michael A. Lorber, Greg Elmer, Andre Prost, Paul A. Nutting, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe. World Health Organization, Alvin M. Weinberg, Leonard B. Lerer, Nancy Kramer Banchy, and Russ Metler.

Nutting, Paul A.; And Others (1977). Studies in Ambulatory Care Quality Assessment in the Indian Health Service. Volume III: Comparison of Rural Private Practice, Health Maintenance Organizations, and the Indian Health Service. Utilizing a quality assessment methodology for ambulatory patient care currently under development by the Indian Health Service's (IHS) Office of Research and Development, comparisons were made between results derived from a pilot test in IHS service units, 2 metropolitan Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO), and 3 rural private practices. Comparison of the systems' performances were made for the following tracer conditions: prenatal care; infant care; streptococcal; urinary tract infection; lacerations of scalp and extremities; hypertension; and iron-deficiency anemia. Results indicated: no substantial and consistant difference in the performance of the providers of care; observable differences attributable to patient contact with the system of care or system recognition of the need for service; IHS provided more widespread application of counseling and educational tasks and selected screening tasks, had higher patient contacts, and had lower recognition of the need for service than private practices or HMO's; private practices and HMO's had higher recognition of service need and higher follow-up rates than IHS; private practices had somewhat of a higher follow-up rate than the HMO's; HMO's had a somewhat higher application rate for counseling, education, and health surveillance tasks than private practices. Since the provider indicators did not reveal a particularly high level of performance, it was concluded that systems performance could be substantially improved if all practices capitalized upon existing patient visit patterns.   [More]  Descriptors: Agencies, American Indians, Comparative Analysis, Delivery Systems

Metler, Russ; And Others (1991). AIDS Surveillance among American Indians and Alaska Natives, American Journal of Public Health. Studying the prevalence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among American Indians and Alaskan Native populations reveals a low 1990 case rate but a rapid increase in diagnosed cases, at a rate higher than any other racial/ethnic group. Culturally sensitive prevention programs are required. Descriptors: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian Americans

Elmer, Greg (1997). Spaces of Surveillance: Indexicality and Solicitation on the Internet, Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Investigates significance of the index in the process of mapping and formatting sites, spaces, and words on the Internet as well as diagnosing, tracking, and soliciting users. Argues that indexical technologies are increasingly called upon by commercial interests to automate the solicitation process whereby entry into an Internet site triggers the accumulation of a user's demographic and psychographic data. Descriptors: Communication Research, Higher Education, Indexes, Internet

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe. (1980). Early Detection of Handicap in Children: Report on a WHO Working Group (Faro, Portugal, May 15-18, 1979). EURO Reports and Studies, 30. The report of the World Health Organization working group which met in February, 1979, to consider issues in detection of handicap in children contains sections on major problems, early detection programs, approaches, administrative issues, personnel, research, conclusions, and recommendations. Major problems include the definition of handicap and "at risk," second handicaps secondary to other handicaps, and need for services. Early detection programs are discussed in terms of an international survey of existing programs in nine countries, general requirements of screening programs, timing, goals, hazards, and frequency of detection programs for those already identified as handicapped. Primary prevention, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, termination of pregnancy, and the neonatal period are considered in the chapter on approaches to early detection. Administrative issues discussed include program evaluation, psychological considerations, economic considerations, epidemiological considerations, and handicap registers. Health care teams, multidisciplinary teams, parental involvement, and training are personnel topics examined. Types of needed research include small scale research projects, quantitative models, and cross national studies. Among conclusions is the need for surveillance systems though the organization and methods adopted may differ. Seventeen recommendations include: the assessment of all pregnant women for the risk of handicap to the child, examination of every newborn by specially trained staff, detection programs to be limited to those conditions which are identifiable and for which appropriate management is available, and cross national studies in the field of handicap. Descriptors: Administration, Children, Disabilities, Foreign Countries

Young, Mary E.; Prost, Andre (1985). Child Health in China. World Bank Staff Working Papers, Number 767. Utilizing mainly Chinese publications, this paper reviews the existing data on childhood diseases in order to assess the health status and morbidity patterns of Chinese children. China's infant mortality rate is among the very lowest in the developing world. The number of post-neonatal deaths as a proportion of total infant deaths has decreased to a level comparable to that of a developed country. The epidemiologic pattern of vaccine preventable diseases indicates that immunization activities have had a significant impact on the occurrence of these diseases. The overall prevalence of infectious diseases is decreasing and, relatively, the frequency of congenital defects is increasing as a major cause of childhood mortality. However, fecal-borne diseases such as dysentery, hepatitis, and ascariasis are still the predominant causes of morbidity. A secular improvement in the nutritional status of Chinese children is noted, but mild to moderate malnutrition still persists. Discussion focuses on several issues: the impact of the one-child family policy, which is creating different demands on the maternal and child health care service network; technological shortcomings in immunization activities, which are affecting coverage; the lack of better technical training, which is influencing health reporting and surveillance systems; and the lack of corrective programs to further decrease malnutrition. Descriptors: Children, Diseases, Foreign Countries, Health

Morrison, Linda (1977). Pioneers: A Case Study of a Film Caught in the Two Line Struggle in Literature and Art in the People's Republic of China. Occasional Paper No. 77-5. The controversy surrounding the Chinese film "Pioneers" is analyzed and presented as a case study of a film caught in the recent two-line struggle in literature and art in the People's Republic of China. Within the history of the arts in China, there has been a difference of opinion between those in favor of the continued portrayal of bourgeois themes and those who believe in the exclusive depiction of the struggles of the worker. Those two opposing views have come to be called the two-line struggle in literature and art. "Pioneers" is a feature length film documenting the successful establishment of a model revolutionary industrial community near Siberia. It was filmed in the early 1970s at the suggestion of Premier Chou En-lai. However, upon its completion in 1975, its release was banned by Chiang Ch'ing, Mao's wife, whom he had made overseer of all fine arts productions. She condemned the film for glorifying the achievements of specific individuals. Mao disagreed with her decision, but she persisted in keeping the film and its producers under surveillance. Since the arrest of Chiang Ch'ing in October 1976, Mao's successor has allowed the film to be released. Perhaps this indicates his support of Chou En-lai and Mao or perhaps he sees no serious errors in revolutionary thought in the film's content.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Censorship, Chinese Culture, Comparative Education

Graitcer, Philip L.; Lerer, Leonard B. (1998). Child Labor and Health: Quantifying the Global Health Impacts of Child Labor. Child labor remains one of the most controversial challenges at the end of the 20th century. Approximately 250 million children in developing countries work either full- or part-time. Child labor is not confined to less-developed countries, as economic transitions bring shifts in the prevalence and nature of child labor. Throughout the world, occupational injury and mortality rates for children exceed those of adults. Yet, data on the extent of child labor and the associated burden of injury and disability are often of poor quality. An estimated 6 million work-related injuries occur among children that result in 2.5 million disabilities and 32,000 fatalities each year. Using data derived from the Global Burden of Diseases Study (GBDS), estimates of child occupational mortality rates by region were found to be comparable with adult mortality rates, indicating that the conditions in which children work are as dangerous as, or more dangerous than, those in which adults work. Using either the human capital or willingness-to-pay calculations, estimates of economic impact of child labor-related mortality can be made. Depending on the estimate method used, the annual cost of child labor-related mortality in India, for example, lies between 101 million and 2.43 billion U.S. dollars. Intervention to reduce the societal and economic impact of child labor can be directed at either reducing the supply and demand for child labor or by maximizing the best possible health outcomes for children. Addressing properly the global problems of child labor requires an aggressive research agenda directed toward improving the quality of the data, improving monitoring and surveillance, understanding implications of the changing nature of work, understanding social and institutional issues, and identifying innovative intervention solutions. (Contains 84 references.) Descriptors: Child Labor, Child Welfare, Children, Costs

Andrus, Jon K.; And Others (1991). Surveillance of Attempted Suicide among Adolescents in Oregon, 1988, American Journal of Public Health. Summarizes the first year's results of an Oregon mandate that hospitals report all attempted suicides by adolescents and compares the characteristics of attempted adolescent suicides in 1988 with completed suicides between 1979 and 1988. The best predictor of outcome was the method used; the relationship between method and outcome must be further investigated to increase effective intervention. Descriptors: Adolescents, Guns, Hospitals, Medical Case Histories

Sprouse, Larman W.; Brooks, John (1974). A Manual for Rural School Fluoridation. The product of a 1972 Dental Health Branch contract with the U.S. Public Health Service, this manual is designed to aid in the development of school fluoridation programs and presents: background information on general concepts relating to the action of fluoride on teeth; discussions dealing with community and school fluoridation studies; and the school fluoridation system developed and used in Kentucky. Specifically this guide includes: (1) Introduction (statistical information re fluoridation in general and the Kentucky project in particular); (2) Concepts of Fluoride Action; (3) Belated Full-Time Exposure to Fluoridated Community Water Supplies (three studies documenting the effects of fluoridation); (4) Belated Part-Time Consumption of Fluoridated Water (two studies); (5) Studies on Rural School Fluoridation (four major studies, one of which involves a school served by naturally fluoridated well water and three which involve controlled fluoridation of the school water supply); (6) Initial Rural School Survey Procedures; (7) Installation of School Fluoridation Equipment; (8) Charging and Calibration (fluoridation equipment); (9) Surveillance; (10) Maintenance; (11) Important Administrative Considerations; (12) Appendix (sample forms, equipment lists and photographs of equipment that are used in school fluoridation which might prove useful to agencies and schools interested in instituting a fluoridation program).   [More]  Descriptors: Administration, Definitions, Dental Health, Equipment

Kann, Laura; And Others (1995). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance–United States, 1993, Journal of School Health. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 24 state surveys, and 9 local school-based surveys of U.S. high school students. Categories of behaviors monitored are: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Descriptors: Drinking, Drug Abuse, Eating Habits, High School Students

Moss, Kary L. (1993). Charting a New Course: Finding Alcohol Treatment for Native American Women. Although the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been called an "epidemic" on some American Indian reservations, solutions for Native American women with alcohol and drug dependency problems have largely been ignored by the federal government. FAS prevention policy, originating around 1979, has been driven by the simplistic idea that women are responsible for FAS, and has focused primarily on the health of the fetuses, not of the women themselves. Long-standing policy has ignored the dearth of gender-sensitive treatment programs for women, the devastating health consequences of alcohol use for all Native Americans, and the complex conditions that give rise to alcohol dependency. Tribes, especially those in rural areas, have limited access to federal funding for FAS prevention, and existing funding methods complicate service delivery. FAS prevention has meant, largely, that the federal government gives money to tribes to distribute educational materials and to identify those suffering from FAS, and gives money to the Centers for Disease Control and other agencies for surveillance studies. Existing FAS prevention efforts are largely unworkable due to gender insensitivity, lack of child care, social stigma, bureaucratic infighting, lack of interagency coordination, and lack of adequately trained staff. Although "primary prevention workers" have recently begun providing training to educators, related health education to children, and support and referral services, such workers are scarce and scattered.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Health Care, Alcohol Abuse, American Indians, Child Abuse

Weinberg, Alvin M.; And Others (1963). Science, Government, and Information: The Responsibilities of the Technical Community and the Government in the Transfer of Information. The first two parts of the report describe some attributes of the information process and of various information handling systems. Recommendations to the technical community include: (1) The technical community must recognize that handling of technical information is a worthy and integral part of science; (2) The individual author must accept more responsibility for subsequent retrieval of what is published; (3) Techniques of handling information must be widely taught; (4) New modes for information processing and retrieval must be explored and (5) Uniformity and compatibility of information systems are desirable. Recommendations to Government agencies include: (1) Each Federal agency concerned with science and technology must accept its responsibility for information activities in fields relevant to its mission; (2) Each agency should establish a focal point of responsibility for information activities; (3) The Federal Council for Science and Technology should keep all Government information systems under surveillance; (4) The various systems should be articulated by information clearinghouses; (5) Each agency must maintain its own system and (6) The President's Science Advisory Committee should give information problems continued attention. (This is considered to be one of the basic papers of government interest in the field of information science.)   [More]  Descriptors: Data Processing, Government Role, Information Dissemination, Information Needs

Lorber, Michael A. (1973). Increased Learning Freedom Via Computers. Approximately 1800 prospective secondary school teachers at Illinois State University are providing themselves with pre-service education via a self-paced competency-based teacher education program. Called the Professional Sequence (PS), the program replaces courses taught by the lecture method. PS frees students from scheduled classes, eliminates non-essential material, and gives continuous evaluations. The program was developed by selecting the desired competencies and designing self-instructional learning packages consisting of: 1) a proficiency test, 2) a statement of objectives, 3) required and optional learning activities, such as reading, or using tapes or computer-assisted instructional programs, and 4) evaluation. Subject matter is increasingly being prepared for a random-access information retrieval system known as the Program Yielding Rapid Access Major Information Devices (PYRAMID). PYRAMID consists of a series of audio and visual storage and playback systems and a mini-computer control unit. The computerized Surveillance System keeps a master file on each student, recording his completion of learning package activities, evaluating what he has learned, and providing daily and weekly printouts on each individual's progress. Weekly meetings between a student and his advisor allow professors to monitor student progress and provide help as needed.   [More]  Descriptors: Competency Based Teacher Education, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Oriented Programs, Continuous Progress Plan

Banchy, Nancy Kramer (1985). A Last Resort: Truancy Referrals to Juvenile Court. The issue of appropriate truancy intervention is addressed in this description of the efforts of Minneapolis, Minnesota to design a continuum of interventions that relies on the resources of both the school and juvenile court. Exigencies which precipitated a truancy pilot project are discussed: a shared belief that truancy is a signal for attention, and if left unattended, a precessor of more serious problems; a 1983-84 truancy study of court interventions and their impact on school attendance; and a compilation of school district truancy statistics including characteristics of students who were truant during the same period. The 1984-85 Truancy Pilot Project is then presented, with attention given to the target population, primary strategies, and pilot objectives. Four intervention levels are discussed: (1) school truancy team prevention and support intervention for all students; (2) identification and intervention for team-selected high-risk students; (3) truancy intervention strategies for truants; and (4) court surveillance for habitual truants. A list of seven implications for school social work practice are reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for continued work with chronically truant students and their families, and the desirability of viewing the juvenile court as a last resort intervention. Descriptors: Attendance Patterns, Court Role, Elementary Secondary Education, Intervention

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